EL OBSERVADOR DE SOCHEG
Causes, patterns and severity of androgen excess in 487 consecutively recruited pre- and post-pubertal children.
Idkowiak J, Elhassan YS, Mannion P, Smith K, Webster R, Saraff V, Barrett TG, Shaw NJ, Krone N, Dias RP, Kershaw M, Kirk JM, Högler W, Krone RE, O'Reilly MW, Arlt W.
Eur J Endocrinol. 2019 Mar 1;180(3):213-221. doi: 10.1530/EJE-18-0854.
Objective Androgen excess in childhood is a common presentation and may signify sinister underlying pathology. Data describing its patterns and severity are scarce, limiting the information available for clinical decision processes. Here, we examined the differential diagnostic value of serum DHEAS, androstenedione (A4) and testosterone in childhood androgen excess. Design Retrospective review of all children undergoing serum androgen measurement at a single center over 5 years. Methods Serum A4 and testosterone were measured by tandem mass spectrometry and DHEAS by immunoassay. Patients with at least one increased androgen underwent phenotyping by clinical notes review. Results In 487 children with simultaneous DHEAS, A4 and testosterone measurements, we identified 199 with androgen excess (140 pre- and 59 post-pubertal). Premature adrenarche (PA) was the most common pre-pubertal diagnosis (61%), characterized by DHEAS excess in 85%, while A4 and testosterone were only increased in 26 and 9% respectively. PCOS was diagnosed in 40% of post-pubertal subjects, presenting equally frequent with isolated excess of DHEAS (29%) or testosterone (25%) or increases in both A4 and testosterone (25%). CAH patients (6%) predominantly had A4 excess (86%); testosterone and DHEAS were increased in 50 and 33% respectively. Concentrations increased above the two-fold upper limit of normal were mostly observed in PA for serum DHEAS (>20-fold in the single case of adrenocortical carcinoma) and in CAH for serum androstenedione. Conclusions Patterns and severity of childhood androgen excess provide pointers to the underlying diagnosis and can be used to guide further investigations.
Causes, Patterns, and Severity of Androgen Excess in 1205 Consecutively Recruited Women.
Elhassan YS, Idkowiak J, Smith K, Asia M, Gleeson H, Webster R, Arlt W, O'Reilly MW.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2018 Mar 1;103(3):1214-1223. doi: 10.1210/jc.2017-02426.
Androgen excess in women is predominantly due to underlying polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). However, there is a lack of clarity regarding patterns and severity of androgen excess that should be considered predictive of non-PCOS pathology.
We examined the diagnostic utility of simultaneous measurement of serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), androstenedione (A4), and testosterone (T) to delineate biochemical signatures and cutoffs predictive of non-PCOS disorders in women with androgen excess.
Retrospective review of all women undergoing serum androgen measurement at a large tertiary referral center between 2012 and 2016. Serum A4 and T were measured by tandem mass spectrometry and DHEAS by immunoassay. Patients with at least one increased serum androgen underwent phenotyping by clinical notes review.
In 1205 women, DHEAS, A4, and T were measured simultaneously. PCOS was the most common diagnosis in premenopausal (89%) and postmenopausal women (29%). A4 was increased in all adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) cases (n = 15) and T in all ovarian hyperthecosis (OHT) cases (n = 7); all but one case of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH; n = 18) were identified by increased levels of A4 and/or T. In premenopausal women, CAH was a prevalent cause of severe A4 (59%) and T (43%) excess; severe DHEAS excess was predominantly due to PCOS (80%). In postmenopausal women, all cases of severe DHEAS and A4 excess were caused by ACC and severe T excess equally by ACC and OHT.
Pattern and severity of androgen excess are important predictors of non-PCOS pathology and may be used to guide further investigations as appropriate.